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General Information


It is found in a family of mushrooms commonly known as "magic mushrooms" that have been used throughout history to induce hallucinations. In the late 1950s Albert Hofmann, of Sandoz Laboratories, identified and synthesized the psychoactive compounds psilocybin and psilocin which are found in psilocybe mushrooms. Psilocybin was marketed by Sandoz as Indocybin for basic psychopharmacological and therapeutic clinical research. Psilocybin saw a rapid rise in popularity during the 1960s and was classed as a Schedule I drug in 1970. This led to a significant decrease in psilocybin research. Recently, however, preliminary studies with psilocybin have shown promise as potential for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, alcohol addiction, tobacco addiction, and major depressive disorder, and the treatment of depression in terminally ill cancer patients. This review describes in detail the synthesis, metabolism, pharmacology, adverse drug reactions, and importance of psilocybin to neuroscience in the past and present.

Psychedelic substances

Psychedelic substances have gained significant attention in recent years for their potential therapeutic effects on various psychiatric disorders. This review delves into the intricate cellular neurobiology of psychedelics, emphasizing their potential therapeutic applications in addressing the global burden of mental illness. It focuses on contemporary research into the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms underlying these substances, particularly the role of 5-HT2A receptor signaling and the promotion of plasticity through the TrkB-BDNF pathway. The review also discusses how psychedelics affect various receptors and pathways and explores their potential as anti-inflammatory agents. Overall, this research represents a significant development in biomedical sciences with the potential to transform mental health treatments.

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